The Department of Defense’s Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP), which began in 2001, addresses the potential explosives safety, health, and environmental issues resulting from past munitions use at current and former military training lands. In fulfilling its obligations under MMRP, the Army’s first priority is the protection of human health, safety, and the environment. The MMRP follows the requirements of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 and its amendments of 1986.
ARNG is the lead agency providing funding for response actions. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is the lead support agency providing technical oversight and project management for response actions with regulatory support provided by the Utah Department of Environmental Quality (UDEQ).
The MMRP program closely follows traditional CERCLA cleanup phases, as follows, and as dictated by the findings of each stage:
UXO Safety and Outreach Materials
The foundation of the Army's “3Rs" Program is a consistent, easily understood, and remembered safety message - Recognize, Retreat, Report. The Army's “3Rs" Explosives Safety Education Program and its “3Rs" message will be the basis for education programs informing our Soldiers, their families, our civilian workers and the public of the hazards associated with munitions that may be present on our installations. This same message is applicable for and used to educate the public. As such, our Soldiers and their families, regardless of whether they live on or off an installation, will also benefit from learning the 3Rs.
Although the description of the "3Rs" may change slightly, given the target audience or subject matter, they generally mean:
UTNG Munitions Response Sites (MRSs)
Site ID: WILLI-002-R-01
Site Name: WOOD HOLLOW TRAINING AREA
This is a transferred range of 232 acres located north of the installation; part is owned by the US Bureau of Land Management and part by private owners. From 1930 to 1945 it was used as an artillery impact area. According to the environmental office at Camp Williams, three intact French 75 millimeter (mm) artillery rounds were found during a walkover of the area following a July 2001 fire. The environmental office added that there were likely to be more of these in the area because the individuals performing the walkover were not specifically looking for munitions. A portion of this range extends into the operational area. The area is currently undeveloped land.
A final SI was completed in August 2008. A total of eight French 75 mm rounds were found in two locations during the SI. The acreage of the site was expanded to encompass these rounds that were identified to the east. The final SI report recommended that additional samples be collected at the location of the 75 mm shells, and at any newly discovered MEC.
The RI was contracted in April 2009 and RI field work was conducted from spring through fall of 2010. RI field work resulted in the discovery of five 75mm MEC items (four shrapnel rounds and one High-Explosive (HE) round). MEC was generally located within about six inches of the ground surface. Extensive MD from 75mm rounds, including 33 expended 75mm shrapnel rounds, and limited MD from 37mm rounds was found throughout the site. The RI Report was submitted to State regulators and concurrence has been received from one of two reviewing divisions. The site boundaries were recommended to regulators for modification to cover the expanded area of contamination, estimated to include 232 acres, based on the RI results. Of this, 168 acres yielded an anomaly density of one to 20 anomalies per acre, 46 acres yielded a MEC/MD anomaly density of 20-50 per acre and 18 acres yielded a MEC/MD anomaly density of greater than 50 per acre.
A Time-Critical Removal Action was conducted on 32 acres at the site in November and December 2011 to support ongoing mine expansion activities. Subsurface removal to 12 inches depth was performed. Six MEC and widespread MD, including 112 each 75 mm casings and 14 each 37 mm casings, were found.
The RI results for MC were not of concern and did not carry forward through the FS stage. The RI/FS work is completed. The Decision Document (DD) has received final signature. MEC removal and institutional controls are funded and underway. As of May 2017 removal action field work has been completed.
Site ID: WILLI-004-R-01
Site Name: ARTILLERY IMPACT AREA BUFFER ZONE
This is a transferred range of 700 acres; part is owned by the US Bureau of Land Management and part by private owners. Three maps of the installation (a 1951 map, a 1985 map, and a 1982 map revised in 1989), show the artillery impact area buffer zone in the western part of the installation extending north of the installation boundary, while other maps, from this period and current maps, indicate that the artillery impact area approaches, but does not go outside, the installation boundary. Several interviewees, including the Explosive Ordnance Division (EOD) and range personnel, said they were not familiar with munitions traveling outside of the installation boundary in this area. One interviewee noted specifically that it was unlikely that anything ever went offsite due to the topography and typical firing directions. Although the reason for this discrepancy is unclear, this report assumes that the maps showing the buffer zone outside of the installation boundary were accurate. The name of the impact area makes it fair to assume that artillery was fired here and based on the dates of the maps that delineated this area, the buffer zone most likely extended outside the installation boundary from 1951 to 1989. The three maps that show this range as going outside the installation boundary indicate slightly different boundaries for the buffer zone. The outer boundaries of this transferred range area were created by combining the furthest extent of the buffer zone shown on each of the maps. Also of note is the fact that this range overlaps with the Rose Canyon Training Area. There have been no known unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearances of this area. The Department of Defense has never owned this range. This area is currently undeveloped.
The final SI was issued in August 2008. The report increased the area of the site to 678 acres to include a portion of the Rose Canyon Training Area that overlaid the MRS. The SI did not detect any munitions constituents, but one 155mm and one eight-inch round were located during the SI. Both of these were live and disposed of by EOD personnel.
The RI was contracted in April 2009 with field work conducted during spring through fall of 2010.
The RI field work resulted in surface finds of one MEC item, a 155mm HE round, two expended 155mm projectiles, and one large 155mm casing fragment. Subsurface finds were limited to heavy-case fragments. During the course of the RI field work, a wildfire crossed through portions of the MRS, revealing another 155mm HE MEC item as well as an expended 155mm illumination casing. Additional items were discovered just inside the installation boundary. All MEC discoveries were located on the surface.
The site boundaries were recommended to regulators for modification to cover the expanded area of contamination, estimated to include 700 acres, based on the RI results. Part of this area is proposed to be withdrawn from the Rose Canyon Training Area MRS, WILLI-007-R-01. The justification is that these portions of the Rose Canyon Training Area MRS follow the same conceptual site model as that of the Artillery Impact Area Buffer Zone MRS, WILLI-004-R-01, i.e. overshoots or skips from within the installation.
MEC/MD anomaly densities within the 700 contaminated acres are roughly broken out as follows: 106 acres are greater than five per acre, 148 acres are between three to five per acre, and 445 acres are between one to three per acre.
A Time-Critical Removal Action was conducted on 166 acres at the site in November and December of 2011. A 100% surface sweep of this acreage resulted in the discovery of four MEC, all 155 mm high-explosive rounds on the surface with some form of damage to the fuse mechanism. Very little MD was discovered.
The RI/FS work is completed. The DD has received final signature. MEC removal and institutional controls were funded and removal actions were completed in 2014. A Site-Specific Final Report documenting the removal action was published in April 2015.
Site ID: UTHQ-019-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Winchester Hills
The 738.4-acre former target range is transferred and located in St. George, Washington County, Utah. This MRS was utilized by the 2nd Battalion, 222nd Field Artillery unit stationed at St. George, Utah from 1954 to 1955. Weapons/munitions utilized were howitzers, 3.5-inch rockets (bazookas), small arms (including .30 caliber (cal) M1 Carbine and .45 cal M3 "Grease Guns"), and hand grenades. Direction of fire was from an area east of Highway 18 northeastward into a naturally elevated rock formation.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. Total site acreage was corrected and increased in the SI report from 481.3 to 738.4. Final SI report recommended splitting out site acreage that required NFA beyond SI so those 602.2 acres are now identified with the new site UTHQ-019-R-02. The area of concern was reduced from 481.3 acres to 136.2 acres and is identified with UTHQ-019-R-01. Munitions debris associated with large caliber munitions was identified during the visual survey so further investigation of MEC is required.
DERP funding was used to complete work through the SI at this site. NDNODS sites moving forward with the RI/FS phase are reprogrammed into Compliance-related Cleanup. This site will continue to be tracked in AEDB-R until the Headquarters Army Environmental System database is available.
RI began in 2013. The anticipated exit strategy for this site includes completion of the RI/FS. Once the RI/FS is completed future actions will be evaluated. At this time there isn't sufficient documentation to plan for future actions.
Site ID: UTHQ-022-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Winchester Hills UXO Site
The 521.5-acre Winchester Hills Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Site MRS is transferred and located in St. George, Washington County, Utah. This MRS encompasses the location of a January 2007 UXO discovery and the area immediately surrounding that location where residents have reported seeing debris.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. The final SI report recommended splitting out site acreage that required NFA beyond SI so those 493.4 acres are now identified with the new site UTHQ-022-R-02. The area of concern was reduced to 28.1 acres and is identified with UTHQ-022-R-01. A live bazooka round was previously identified. Additionally, a rock formation was observed during the SI field activities that had been impacted by several types of munitions so further investigation of MEC is required.
Site ID: UTHQ-005-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Ephraim Small Arms Range
The Ephraim SAR is 45.3 acres and is located in Sanpete County, Utah. The former Ephraim Small Arms Range was identified in 1918 Army Appropriation Bill list of National Guard Target Ranges. UTARNG units would utilize the .30-40 Krag rifle which fired .30 caliber bullets and the Springfield Rifle for small arms training. The site included a seven foot deep target pit and metal target posts for hoisting pop-up targets. The range was approximately 600 yards in length.
SI field work was conducted in 2011. Lead contaminated soils were discovered. The SI screening level for soil is 400 mg/kg for total lead. One soil sample exceeded the standard with results of 6,900 mg/kg.
The anticipated exit strategy for this site includes completion of the RI/FS. Once the RI/FS is completed future actions will be evaluated. At this time there is not sufficient documentation to plan for future actions.
Site ID: UTHQ-008-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Manti Small Arms Range
The former SAR contains 4.1 acres and is located off of an unnamed road east of Service Berry Road, Manti, Sanpete County, Utah. The former Manti SAR was used from approximately 1977 until 1995. The units would use pop-up targets operated by individuals in the pits behind the berm. Training included small caliber munitions using the M16A1 rifle. Direction of fire was from the southwest to the northeast into a reinforced earthen berm.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. Total site acreage was increased in the SI report from 3.4 to 4.1. Lead contaminated soils were discovered. The SI screening level for soil is 400 mg/kg for total lead. Three soil samples exceeded the standard with results of 900 mg/kg, 520 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg. One 40 millimeter practice grenade nose cone and four fuze parts were identified at this site. In addition, the area was heavily covered with both small arms debris of indeterminate origin and civilian small arms debris.
The anticipated exit strategy for this site includes completion of the RI/FS. Once the RI/FS is completed future actions will be evaluated. At this time there isn't sufficient documentation to plan for future actions.
Site ID: UTHQ-016-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Richfield Small Arms Range
The former SAR consists of 1.1 acres and is located off of Civilian Conservation Road, in the city of Richfield, Sevier County, Utah. The former Richfield SAR was used from 1933 until approximately 1988. The former range was used for small arms training and consisted of targets placed at the base of a large hill. Munitions were fired from the northeast towards a large hill to the southwest.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. Total site acreage was increased in the SI report from 0.5 to 1.1. Lead contaminated soils were discovered. The SI screening level for soil is 400 mg/kg for total lead. One soil sample exceeded the standard with results of 810 mg/kg.
Site ID: UTHQ-024-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS Provo Encampment AR – Water
Provo Encampment Artillery Range is located on the eastern shore of Utah Lake and within the Utah Lake State Park, in the city of Provo, Utah County, Utah. The site consists of a single 5322.5-acre MRS located in the northeast quarter of Section 24, Township 3 North, Range 1 West of the Salt Lake Principal Meridian. The artillery range within the encampment at Provo was utilized by units of the UTARNG from approximately 1903 through approximately 1904. The former artillery range is located within property owned by the State of Utah.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. Total site acreage was corrected and increased in the SI report from 954.7 to 5322.5. The final SI report recommended splitting out site acreage that required NFA beyond SI so those 62.9 acres are now identified with the site UTHQ-024-R-02. An SI with 5-year review is recommended for the remaining 5259.6 acres and is identified with UTHQ-024-R-01.
The Provo Encampment Artillery Range - Water MRS (UTHQ-024-R-01) was not included in the 2011 SI field activities. Based on the limited duration of site use (2 weeks total in 1903 and 1904) and the lack of evidence of any munitions found in the 100 years since, this site is recommended for SI with 5-year review. SI with 5-year review allows periodic reassessment of the site so that further action may be taken, if warranted; however, reports of finds of military munitions that may be related to Guard use will be addressed immediately.
The SI was awarded for this site in Fiscal Year (FY16). Once the right of entry request is granted SI field work will be completed. Based on the Army's experience with these types of sites, the site will be closed following completion of the SI.
Site ID: UT912-001-R-01
Site Name: NDNODS St. George Armory SAR
County, Utah. The former St. George Armory SAR was used for small arms training. The area consisted of a large natural hillside which was utilized as the impact berm for firing up to 200 yards.
SI field work was conducted in 2011 and the report was made final in 2012. Total site acreage was increased in the SI report from 3.4 to 4.2. Lead contaminated soils were discovered. The SI screening level for soil is 400 milligram/kilogram (mg/kg) for total lead. Three soil samples exceeded the standard with results of 480 mg/kg, 530 mg/kg, and 790 mg/kg.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA):The law that established a program to identify hazardous waste sites and procedures for cleaning up these sites to be protective of human health and the environment, and to evaluate damages to natural resources.
Decision Document (DD): A legal document that describes the remedial actions selected for a CERCLA site. A Decision Document includes reasons why certain actions were selected, how much they will cost, how the public responded to the Proposed Plan, and how the public’s comments were incorporated into the final decision.
Digital Geophysical Mapping (DGM): A method used to acquire geophysical data using self-recording instruments. The data acquired are post-processed to identify geophysical anomalies for further investigation.
Discarded Military Munitions (DMM): Military munitions that have been abandoned without proper disposal or removed from storage in a military magazine or other storage area for the purpose of disposal. The term does not include unexploded ordnance (UXO), military munitions that are being held for future use or planned disposal, or military munitions that have been properly disposed of, consistent with applicable environmental laws and regulations.
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD): The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of UXO and of other munitions that have become an imposing danger, for example, by damage or deterioration.
Feasibility Study (FS): An investigation stage in the CERCLA cleanup process that identifies alternatives available to address contamination at a site, including an analysis of cost and how each alternative would protect human health and the environment.
Human Health Risk Assessment: An evaluation of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks presented by contaminants at a site for current and potential future property uses.
Information Repository: A record or file that contains all information used to make a decision on the selection of a response action under CERCLA.
Military Munitions: All ammunition products and components produced for or used by the armed forces for national defense and security, including ammunition products or components under the control of the Department of Defense (DoD), United States Coast Guard, Department of Energy (DOE), and National Guard. The term includes confined gaseous, liquid, and solid propellants; explosives, pyrotechnics, chemical and riot control agents, smokes, and incendiaries, including bulk explosives and chemical warfare agents; chemical munitions, rockets, guided and ballistic missiles, bombs, warheads, mortar rounds, artillery ammunition, small arms ammunition, grenades, mines, torpedoes, depth charges, cluster munitions and dispensers, demolition charges; and devices and components thereof. The term does not include wholly inert items; improvised explosive devices; and nuclear weapons, nuclear devices, and nuclear components other than nonnuclear components of nuclear devices that are managed under the nuclear weapons program of the DOE after all required sanitization operations under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 2011 et seq.) have been completed. (10 U.S.C. 101(e) (4) (A) through (C)).
Munitions Constituents (MC): Any materials originating from UXO, discarded military munitions, or other military munitions, including explosive and nonexplosive materials, and emission, degradation, or breakdown elements of such ordnance or munitions.
Munitions Debris (MD): Remnants of munitions remaining after munitions use, demilitarization, or disposal.
Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC): Specific categories of military munitions that may pose unique explosive safety risks, such as UXO, discarded military munitions, or MC that are present in high enough concentrations to pose an explosive hazard.
Munitions Response: Response actions, including investigation, removal actions, and remedial actions to address the explosives safety, human health, or environmental risks presented by UXO, DMM, or munitions constituents (MC), or to support a determination that no removal or remedial action is required.
Munitions Response Area (MRA): Any area on a defense site that is known or suspected to contain UXO, discarded military munitions, or MC.
Munitions Response Site (MRS): A discrete location within an MRA that is known to require a munitions response.
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP): Also referred to as the National Contingency Plan, it is a plan required by CERCLA and codified at 40 Code of Federal Regulations Section 300 that provides a framework for responding to releases or threats of release of hazardous substances.
Non-Department of Defense, Non-Operational Defense Sites (NDNODS): Defense sites that were exclusively used by the Army National Guard and were never owned, leased, or otherwise possessed or used by the U.S. Army or other Department of Defense component.
Preliminary Assessment (PA)/Site Inspection (SI): A PA is a limited-scope investigation that collects readily available information about a project and its surrounding area. An SI is then performed if the PA results warrant further investigation. An SI includes activities implemented to determine whether there is a release or potential release and the nature of associated threats at a site.
Proposed Plan (PP): A public participation requirement of CERCLA Section 117 in which the lead federal agency summarizes the preferred cleanup strategy, the rationale for the preference, the alternatives evaluated in the RI/FS, and any Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirement waivers proposed for site cleanup. The Proposed Plan is issued to the public to solicit public review and comment on all alternatives under consideration.
Public Comment Period: A prescribed period during which the public may comment on various documents and actions taken by the government and regulatory agencies.
Remedial Investigation (RI): An in-depth study designed to gather data needed to determine the nature and extent of contamination at a CERCLA site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives.
Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessment (SLERA): A simplified ecological risk assessment used to provide an evaluation of the potential risks to ecological receptors posed by constituents of potential ecological concern. This assessment is used when there is limited site-specific information and, as a result, values are biased in the direction of overestimating risk. The need for conservatism is to provide a defensible conclusion that negligible ecological risk exists or that certain contaminants and exposure pathways can be eliminated from consideration.
Unexploded Ordnance (UXO): Military munitions that: (a) have been primed, fused, armed, or otherwise prepared for action; (b) have been fired, dropped, launched, projected, or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material; and (c) remain unexploded either by malfunction, design, or any other cause.